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Stress Test ECG: What It Is, How It Works & Its Importance

Stress Test ECG: What It Is, How It Works & Its Importance

Stress Test ECG: What It Is, How It Works & Its Importance

Written by Dr Branden Seow

What is a stress test ECG?

A stress test ECG, also known as an exercise stress test or treadmill test, is a non-invasive medical procedure that measures the electrical activity of the heart during physical exercise. This test is conducted to evaluate how well the heart responds to stress or increased workload, and to diagnose conditions such as coronary artery disease or arrhythmias.

Procedure of a Stress Test ECG

During a stress test ECG, the patient is connected to an electrocardiogram (ECG) machine that records the heart’s electrical activity. The patient is then asked to walk on a treadmill or pedal on an exercise bike while the intensity of the exercise gradually increases. The duration and intensity of the exercise depend on the patient’s age, gender, fitness level, and medical condition.

Throughout the test, the ECG machine records the heart rate, blood pressure, and any changes in the heart’s electrical activity. The test is stopped when the patient reaches their maximum heart rate, or when they experience symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, dizziness, or fatigue. After the test, the patient is monitored for a short period to ensure that their heart rate and blood pressure return to normal levels.

Who can do a Stress Test ECG?

A stress test ECG is usually recommended for patients who have symptoms of heart disease, such as chest pain, shortness of breath, or palpitations. It is also used to assess the risk of heart disease in patients who have a family history of heart disease, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or diabetes.

The American Heart Association recommends stress testing for individuals who are over 40 years old and have multiple risk factors for heart disease, or for those who are at intermediate to high risk of heart disease based on their medical history and physical examination.

Stress test ECGs are conducted to diagnose and evaluate heart conditions such as:

1. Coronary artery disease: A stress test ECG can detect reduced blood flow to the heart muscle, which may indicate the presence of blockages in the coronary arteries.

2. Arrhythmias: A stress test ECG can identify abnormal heart rhythms, such as atrial fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia, or supraventricular tachycardia.

A stress test ECG can also evaluate for exercise-induced asthma, a condition in which physical exercise triggers asthma symptoms such as wheezing and shortness of breath.

In general, a stress test ECG may be recommended if:

1. The patient has chest pain or discomfort during physical activity or exertion.

2. The patient has shortness of breath or difficulty breathing during physical activity or exertion.

3. The patient has an abnormal ECG or other signs of heart disease on a routine medical exam.

4. The patient has a family history of heart disease, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or diabetes.

5. The patient is planning to start a new exercise program or engage in more strenuous physical activity

6. The patient wants to check cardiovascular status while exercising or doing strenuous exercises

While stress tests are generally safe, there are certain situations where they may be contraindicated. Some of the contraindications of stress test ECG include:

1. Unstable angina or recent heart attack: Stress tests are not recommended for patients with unstable angina (chest pain at rest) or those who have had a heart attack within the past few days or weeks.

2. Severe hypertension: Patients with severe hypertension (high blood pressure) may be at increased risk for complications during a stress test.

3. Significant heart valve disease: Patients with severe heart valve disease may not be able to tolerate the physical stress of a stress test.

4. Severe heart failure: Patients with severe heart failure may not be able to tolerate the physical stress of a stress test.

5. Pulmonary embolism or deep vein thrombosis: Patients with pulmonary embolism (blood clots in the lungs) or deep vein thrombosis (blood clots in the legs) may be at increased risk for complications during a stress test.

6. Acute illness or infection: Patients who are acutely ill or have an active infection may not be able to tolerate the physical stress of a stress test.

7. Pregnancy: Stress tests are generally not recommended for pregnant women due to the physical stress they may cause.

What is the difference between stress ECG and resting ECG?

A stress test ECG, also known as an exercise ECG, is a type of electrocardiogram that is performed while a patient is exercising or undergoing physical stress. In contrast, what some people may call as normal ECG or the usual ECG, also known as a resting ECG, is performed while a patient is at rest.

During a stress test ECG, a patient is asked to walk on a treadmill or pedal on a stationary bike while their heart rate, blood pressure, and ECG are monitored. The goal of the test is to evaluate the heart’s response to physical stress and identify any abnormalities that may indicate underlying heart disease or other cardiac conditions. The test can also determine the patient’s exercise capacity, which can also be useful for developing a personalized exercise plan.

In contrast, a resting ECG is performed when a patient is at rest and lying down. Electrodes are placed on the patient’s chest, arms, and legs, and the electrical activity of the heart is recorded over a few seconds. This test can detect abnormal heart rhythms, conduction problems, and signs of heart damage, but it cannot evaluate the heart’s response to physical stress.

Overall, a stress test ECG is a more comprehensive test than a usual ECG, as it can provide additional information on the heart’s function and response to physical stress.

Stress ECG and cardiovascular screening

Cardiovascular health screening is a medical examination that aims to identify risk factors and early signs of cardiovascular disease (CVD). It typically involves a medical history review, physical examination, and laboratory tests such as blood pressure, cholesterol, and blood sugar measurements.

A stress test ECG can be a good option for cardiovascular health screening, particularly in individuals who have symptoms or risk factors for heart disease. This test can identify abnormal heart rhythms, reduced blood flow to the heart muscle, and other signs of heart disease that may not be apparent during a routine physical exam.

Other screening tests that may be considered include blood pressure and cholesterol measurements, electrocardiography, and cardiac imaging tests such as echocardiography or cardiac computed tomography (CT) scan may sometimes be indicated.

In conclusion, a stress test ECG is a good option to include as part of one’s cardiovascular health check-up and screening.

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